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Programmer un forum en PHP


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thibault    (2009-04-04)

thibault

 
Programmer un forum en PHP


Je vais tâcher de donner ici les bouts de codes principaux des forums sur lesquels vous êtes en train de surfer, l'idée n'est pas de donner des forums clé en main puisque des tas de sites le font déjà très bien, mais je ne peux que trop vous conseiller de comprendre ces codes et programmer par vous-même pour avoir le plus de liberté possible par la suite.

La programmation d'un forum se fait ici en 4 fichiers principaux :

- forum.php (qui affiche les discussions d'un forum donné)
- discussion.php (qui affiche une discussion donnée)
- formulaire.php (qui affiche le formulaire de nouvelle discussion et de réponse et que vous pouvez inclure n'importe où)
- envoyer.php (qui permet d'analyser le contenu posté et de l'insérer dans la base de données MySql)

Concernant la base de données, la table du forum pourra être créée comme suit. Il ne s'agit que d'un exemple, vous pouvez bien entendu ensuite ajouter des champs "categorie", "notification" et bien d'autres.

<?

$sql = "CREATE TABLE forum (id int(15) NOT NULL auto_increment, reponse_id varchar(30) NOT NULL, reponses varchar(20) NOT NULL, date_verif varchar(20) NOT NULL, date varchar(20) NOT NULL, pseudo varchar(50) NOT NULL, sujet varchar (60) NOT NULL, message text NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (id));";
$res = mysql_query($sql);

$sql = "ALTER TABLE forum ADD INDEX (reponse_id);";
$res = mysql_query($sql);

$sql = "ALTER TABLE forum ADD INDEX (date_verif);";
$res = mysql_query($sql);

?>


Le champ reponse_id contiendra l'id du message original si le message en question est une réponse à ce message et sera vide dans les autres cas, le champ date_verif du premier message d'une discussion contiendra la date (au format américain pour faciliter la recherche chronologique dans la base de données) de la dernière réponse postée pour pouvoir classer les discussions par ordre de date de dernière réponse.

Le fichier forum.php contient notamment le code suivant :

<?

include_once ('bbcode.php');

$db = mysql_connect($serveur,$utilisateur,$password);

mysql_select_db($base,$db) or die ("erreur de connexion base");

include('formulaire.php');

// on sélectionne ici les dernières discussions, ce sont des posts qui ne sont pas eux-mêmes des réponses à d'autres posts
$req = @mysql_query("SELECT id,reponses,date,date_verif, pseudo,sujet,message FROM forum WHERE reponse_id='' ORDER BY date_verif DESC ") or die ("erreur requete");

while($forum = mysql_fetch_array ($req))
{
print '<a href="'.makelink($forum['sujet']).'-f'.$forum['id'].'.html" title="'.substr(bbcode_title($forum['message']),0,500).'" rel="canonical">'. stripslashes($forum['sujet']).'</a> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <font size="2"><b>replies : '.stripslashes($forum['reponses']).'</b> &nbsp; <font color="#888888"> &nbsp; &nbsp; <a title="'.$forum['date_verif'].'">'.substr($forum['date_verif'],0,10).'</a></font></font><br>';
}

mysql_close();

?>


Le fichier discussion quant à lui contiendra le code suivant :

<?

include_once ('bbcode.php');

$db = mysql_connect($serveur,$utilisateur,$password);

mysql_select_db($base,$db) or die ("erreur de connexion base");

$req = mysql_query("SELECT id,reponse_id,date,pseudo,sujet, message,date_verif FROM forum WHERE id='$_GET[id]' ") or die ("erreur requête");

$original = mysql_fetch_array ($req);

print '<br>'.stripslashes($original['pseudo']);

print '<b>'.stripslashes($original['sujet']).'</b><br><br>.bbcode($original['message']);

$rep = mysql_query("SELECT id,date,pseudo,sujet,message FROM forum WHERE reponse_id='$_GET[id]' ORDER BY date ASC") or die ("erreur requête reponse ");

while ($reponse = mysql_fetch_array ($rep))
{
print '<br>'.stripslashes($reponse['pseudo']).' &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font size="2" color="#999999">('.$reponse['date'].')</font><br><b>'. stripslashes($reponse['sujet']).'</b><br><br>.bbcode($reponse['message']).'<br><br>';
}

include('formulaire.php');

mysql_close();

?>


Le fichier formulaire, justement contiendra comme il se doit le code HTML du formulaire de nouvelle discussion ou de réponse :

<form method="post" name="form" action="envoyer.php">

<table border="0" align="center">
<tr>
      <td width="85"><b><font face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif">Sujet</font></b></td>
      <td width="340">
    <input name="sujet" type="text" size="30" maxlength="40" value="<?  echo stripslashes(@$_POST['sujet']); ?>">
        <input type="submit" name="submit" value="Preview"><?  if (@$_POST['submit'] == 'Preview')  print '<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Post" onClick="if(form.title.value == "") { this.form.submit(); this.disabled=true; this.value=\'Posting...\'; }">';  ?>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
      <td colspan="2" align="center"> <div align="left">
    <textarea wrap="VIRTUAL" name="message" cols="50" rows="9"><?  echo stripslashes(@$_POST['message']); ?></textarea>

..... et je vous laisse terminer le code par vous-même (au pire jetez un oeil au code de cette page), c'est assez trivial quand on a compris le principe.


Enfin le code du fichier envoyer.php :

<?

$db = mysql_connect($serveur,$utilisateur,$password);
mysql_select_db($base,$db) or die ("erreur de connexion base");

// Suppression des sauts de lignes et espaces inutiles
$_POST['message'] = trim(@$_POST['message']);
$_POST['sujet'] = trim(@$_POST['sujet']);

// C'est ici qu'on lave le contenu de tout tag HTML
$sujet = addslashes(htmlspecialchars($_POST['sujet']));
$message = addslashes(htmlspecialchars($_POST['message']));

$reponse_id = addslashes(htmlspecialchars($_POST['reponse_id']));

// Il est évidemment vivement conseillé de vérifier le contenu des messages envoyés, notamment par des filtres anti-spam, vérifier également que le message ou le sujet ne sont pas vides ou qu'il ne s'agit pas d'un doublon reposté par erreur etc...

// On prépare la date au format américain
$date_verif = date("Y-m-d H:i:s");
$date = date("Y-m-d H:i:s");

// On met à jour la date et le nombre de réponses du post original
$sql = "SELECT reponses FROM forum WHERE id='$reponse_id';";
$res = @mysql_query($sql);

while ($message_principal = @mysql_fetch_array($res))
{
$reponses=$message_principal['reponses']+1;

@$sql_update = "UPDATE forum SET date_verif='$date_verif', reponses='$reponses' WHERE id='$reponse_id';";
mysql_query($sql_update);
}

// Et enfin on insère le message dans la base de données
$sql_insert = "INSERT INTO forum VALUES ('','$reponse_id','0','$date_verif', '$date','$pseudo','$sujet','$message')";
@mysql_query($sql_insert) or die ("erreur requete");

?>


Bien entendu n'utilisez pas le code tel quel, il ne s'agit que de pistes et d'observer la syntaxe des fonctions MySql pour pouvoir ensuite construire votre propre forum à votre image, c'est tout l'intérêt de développer soi-même.

En ce qui concerne les fonctions bbcode du fichier bbcode.php, vous pouvez en programmer en utilisant l'exemple fourni ici :

http://www.ficgs.com/Fonction-BBcode-en-PHP-f3058.html



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